Marine Microbiology: Bioactive Compounds and Biotechnological Applications
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Beng and M. Marine microorganisms have unique properties since they have to adapt to extreme marine environment condition such as high or low temperature, alkaline or acidic water, high pressure and limited substrate in the deep-sea water. These distinctive characteristics have attracted many researchers to explore in depth since there is the potential of marine microorganisms used in industry.
In this review, we will focus primarily on marine microorganisms that provide biotechnological potential such as in enzymes industry and pharmaceutical products. We also discuss an overview of the challenge facing by researchers in order to explore and exploit the marine reservoir. In the past, most microorganisms were considered as the causative agents for various diseases. The progress in biotechnology particularly in the field of industrial microbiology has led to many researchers to take the economic opportunities in the production of numerous valuable products Baharum et al.
Marine biotechnology is the science in which marine organisms are used in full or partially to make or modify products, to improve plants or animals or to develop microorganisms for specific uses. With the help of different molecular and biotechnological techniques, humans have been able to elucidate many biological methods applicable to both aquatic and terrestrial organisms Kumar and Zi-rong, The marine environment has proven to be rich sources of both biological and chemical diversity.
Marine microorganisms represent the greatest percentage of undescribed marine species Pomponi, With the advancement of culture independent technique, by using small ribosomal RNA rRNA analysis and metagenomics approached, study on marine microbial diversity and ecology such as phylogenetic have made possible. As an example, the large scale metagenomic sequencing project on oligotrophic seawater sample from the Sargasso Sea Venter et al. Marine bioproducts from these classes has a potential of multi-billion dollar market value Carte, It is projected that revenues of marine bioproduct from cosmeceutical, nutraceutical, medical and pharmaceutical industries to reach 3.
According to Das et al. It is estimated that there are 10 9 taxa of bacteria on the earth with 10 6 of bacterial taxa are from the oceans Pedros-Alio, Marine microbe exhibit in the surface water, lower and abyssal depths either from coastal to the offshore region, including general oceanic e. Distribution of marine microorganism is 10 5 of cells per mL Chandrasekaran, and predicted that total oceans harbor 3.
Microbial that commonly dominant in seawater are Pseudomonas sp. Zhou et al. Population of marine microbe can be divided according to sea water condition that is area which Mangrove ecosystems, coral reefs, deep sea and extreme environment Das et al. With symbiosis relationship of bacteria and mangrove tree, most of bacteria exhibit at these area perform various activities like photosynthesis Vethanayagam, and nitrogen fixation Zhang et al.
At coral reefs area, bacteria present since coral produce mucus which contain polysaccharides and protein that serves as growth substances for bacteria Kimio, Whereas for deep sea bacteria, it able to survive by utilizing limited substrate availability such as abundance of organic carbon or dissolved organic matter Das et al.
Many researchers are interested to study marine microorganisms. These extremopilies are differentiated according to their optimal growth condition, namely thermophiles hot spring , psychrophiles cold arctic water , acidophiles acidic water , alcalophiles alkaline water , halophiles saturated salt brines water and barophiles pressurized abyssal water Stetter, In this study we are only focusing on cold adapted marine microorganisms or psychrophiles.
These low temperature conditions have cause main physicochemical effects that is decreasing of biochemical reaction rates exponentially, changing of medium viscosity which makes reaction rate more slowly, changes in membrane fluidity and protein conformation, nutrient availability, ability to reproduce and protection against freezing condition Marx et al. Even at this condition, psychrotophic cold-tolerant organisms managed to survive due to modification made to cytoplasmic membrane, supramolecular assembly processes, secondary structure of nucleic acid and to the enzyme either extra- or intracellular Marx et al.
Study have show that low adapted microbe doing alteration of cytoplasmic membrane fluidity Russell, , expression of cold-acclimation proteins involved in transcription and translational processes Michel et al.
These necessary changes made by psychrophiles have a wide range of biotechnology application such as potential in increase industrial processes efficiency and offer economical benefits through energy saving since they are optimum at low temperature Feller and Gerday, In particular, it is known that marine fungi, native or adapted to the environment, are an important source of bioactive natural products Schiehser et al. Marine microorganisms continue to be the subject of vigorous chemical investigation although studies of marine bacteria may be decreasing in comparison with those of other microorganisms.
Despite the great potential that cold environments hold for revealing diverse products and processes which may have countless industrial applications, our knowledge of the ecology, physiology, metabolism, enzymology and genetics of cold-adapted organisms remains limited Huston, Marine microorganisms as antimicrobial and antiviral source: On past studies, marine microorganisms are found to be capable of producing antimicrobial metabolites. The amides of D-allo- and L-isoleucine derivatives were isolated from the culture of a marine strain of Acremonium furcatum.
Structural elucidation of these compounds was then performed by analysis of spectroscopic data and confirmed by synthesis. From the experiment, the sample showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis , Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli and Botrytis cynerea and a very simple pattern by Thin Layer Chromatography TLC Gallardo et al.
There has been a great interest from researchers to explore marine microorganisms as new source of antibacterial compounds as increasing resistance of pathogen to present antibiotics. One example of studies that has been carried out is purification and partial characterization of marinocine, a new broad-spectrum antibacterial protein produced by Marinomonas mediterranea Lucas-Elio et al.
Marinomonas mediterranea is a melanogenic marine bacterium isolated from the Mediterranean Sea at the Murcia coast. From the study, M. The interest of marinocine was reinforced by its activity on three nosocomial strains of difficult treatment with commercial antibiotics Pseudomonas sp.
Besides, enzyme such as lysozyme that widely distributed in animals, plants and microorganism also possessed antimicrobial and antiviral properties Ibrahim et al. Study by Zhang et al. Study also shows that this lysozyme has a broad antimicrobial activity against several standard strains including gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Other antimicrobial compound isolate from marine microorganisms is sisomicin. Sisomicin show antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli.
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Studies by Lu et al. Marine microorganisms as biosurfactant and bioremediation: Marine microorganisms have proved to be useful in many ways. This include as biosurfactant. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention by researchers, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil Maneerat, Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts.
Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. On past study, it is found that certain marine microorganisms are capable producing biosurfactant. Species that can produce polymeric biosurfactant is Pseudomonas nautical. The major constituents were proteins, carbohydrates and lipid at the ratio of , respectively.
Zinjarde and Pant also reported that Yarrowia lipolytica , a tropical marine strain produced the emulsifier in the presence of alkanes or crude oil.
Microorganisms living on macroalgae: diversity, interactions, and biotechnological applications.
In the study also conclude that biosurfactant as the promising agents for bioremediation of hydrocarbons, particularly oil polluted in marine environment Maneerat, Poremba and Gunkel reported on Alcaligenes sp. Alcanivorax borkumensis are also produces an anionic glucose lipid with a tetrameric oxyacyl side chain Abraham et al. According to Maneerat, , Myroides sp. Besides that, there are marine microorganisms that capable in oxidizing heavy metal ion.
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Lee and Tebo has reported that Bacillus sp. Microorganisms that oxidize Mn II are implicated to be important in Mn II oxidation in nature whereas, Co is a metal of biological, environmental and economic importance.
Mn III,IV oxides produced by such Mn II -oxidizing bacteria are strong oxidants that are capable of oxidizing a number of organic and inorganic chemicals. These study also demonstrate that the spores of Bacillus sp. With the unique ability of marine microorganisms, that capable catalyzing reactions at temperature near the freezing point of water, it have raise considerable interest for both industrial use and fundamental studies as alternative of common mesophilic enzyme since cold-adapted enzymes would contribute towards energy saving strategies Morita et al.
Besides, marine enzyme biotechnology can offer novel biocatalysts with properties like high salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity, cold adaptivity and ease in large scale cultivation Debashish et al.
Volume 1. Microbial Diversity in Normal & Extreme Environments
Lipase producer: Lipase are among such valuable products. Therefore, scientists began to isolate and screen various microorganisms, mainly bacteria, in the search to discover better lipases Baharum et al. Lipase is widely distributed among animals, plants and also microorganisms Pahoja and Sethar, Lipase-producing microorganisms have been found in diverse habitats such as industrial wastes, vegetable oil processing factories, dairies, soil contaminated with oil Baharum et al.
There have been many reports of marine microorganisms produce lipase. Yumoto et al. From the study, the marine microorganism that produces cold active lipase is known as Psychrobacter okhotskensis.
Microbiology & Experimentation
Besides that, there are a many of marine microorganisms, which are capable of producing cold active lipase that can be applied in the industrial field. Another potential source of cold active lipases is deep sea bacteria. Few bacterial genera have been isolated and characterized which include Aeromonas sp. Lee et al. Zeng et al.